The post 30+ Construction Tools List with Images and their Uses appeared first on Civilology.
]]>Sometimes we know the tool but don’t know the name of them in English. We hope we all face this at least once in our life. The below list is a collective effort. If you know some tools or have images that you think might be helpful for all of us, kindly let us know in the comment section. so we can add it here.
Let’s learn together (Don’t forget to share )
This list will be updated periodically (periodically)
NAME | IMAGE | USES |
---|---|---|
Hoe | This tool is used to digging and to place concrete, cement mortar in head pan | |
Head Pan | This one is used to transport materials | |
Masonry trowel | This tool is used to place cement mortar | |
Measurement Tape | This is used to measure | |
Plumb Bob | This tool is used to check the vertical alignment of civil works | |
Wheel Barrow | This tool is used to transport cement mortar or any materials. Sometimes it also be used to measure the quantites of materials for site level concrete mixing | |
Concrete Mixer | This tool is used to thoroughly mix the concrete at site. | |
Vibrator | This tool is used to vibrate the concrete while pouring. For workability purpose, we all add water to concrete. To avoid that we are using vibrators. There are many types of vibrators | |
Rubber Boots | This one is used to prevent skin from chemical contact | |
Sand screening machine | This tool is used to sieve sand at site. | |
Gloves | This is used to avoid direct contact with dangerous tools, machines or to avoid any direct chemical material contact | |
Safety Glass | Used for safety purpose while drilling, hacking/roughening, grinding | |
Bump Cutter/Screed | This tool is used to level fresh concrete surface especially in slab concrete | |
Wooden Float/wooden rendering float | This tool is used to give a smooth finish to the plastered area | |
Chisel | This tool is used to remove excess or waste hard concrete | |
Crow Bar | This tool is used in fomwork to remove nails from boards | |
Framing Square | This tool is used in Brickwork, Plastering to check right angle | |
Framing Hammer | This tool is used to drive and remove nails | |
Line Level | This tool is used to check horizontal level in brickwork, plastering , flooring and tile works | |
Torpedo Level | Combination of line level and framing square | |
Cordless Drill | This tool is used to make pilot holes, replacing jumper (special type of drill should be used while drilling concrete) | |
Circular Saw | This tool is used to cut woods in shuttering | |
Hand Saw | This tool is used in wood works and shuttering | |
Block Plane / Jack Plane | This tool is used in Door and window wood works | |
Flat Pry Bar | This tool is used in shuttering sometimes used to adjust the column formwork to align | |
Earth Rammer | This tool is used to level the ground | |
Ladder | ||
Digging bar | This tool is used to breakup and loosen the compacted / hard surface area | |
Polishers | This tool is used to smoothen the surface (wood or marble flooring) | |
Measuring Wheel | This tool is used to measure lengths. It varies by length | |
Measuring Box | This tool is used to measure the cement and sand while site mix | |
Tile Cutter | This tool is used to cut the tiles | |
Putty Knife | This tool is used in putty finishing to limit the thickness of the putty. | |
Vacuum Blower | This tools is used to clean the surface area from impurities (In flooring, Slab concrete etc.) |
Do you find this helpful? Share it with your friends.
Happy Learning
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]]>The post How to Calculate Rectangular Water Tank Size & Capacity in liters? appeared first on Civilology.
]]>For a high rise building, we will receive approved drawings from architect office regarding water tank dimension.
But what if you need to calculate a water tank for a small residential.
In this post, we are going to see how to estimate rectangular water tank capacity & size?
Volume of Water Requirement
As per IS code, 135 litres is needed for daily use per person per day. Breakup of the IS assumptions
For a typical family (4 members),
Total water requirement is 135 litres x 4 = 650 litres per day.
We all know Volume of water formula as 1 m^{3} = 1000 litres of water.
In order to get the size of the water tank, you need to mention at least one dimension (Length, Width or Depth of the water tank).
If you are planning to construct a water tank in car parking area there may be some restriction on length.
That’s the reason why we are planning to construct the underground water tank while foundation work.
From the above, volume of water formula,
1 m^{3} = 1000 litres
1 litre = 0.001 m^{3}
Our requirement is 650 litres,
Therefore, 650 litres = 0.65 m3
Assuming our water tank depth as 0.6 m
Note: you can also replace your input if you know the length,
So, For 650 litre water tank size, L = 1.47 m, B = 0.74 m & D = 0.6 m
You can also play with the below calculator. If you know the water requirement, just adjust any one of the dimension to meet your requirement
Happy Learning
The post How to Calculate Rectangular Water Tank Size & Capacity in liters? appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post Specific Gravity of Cement – Detailed Explanation appeared first on Civilology.
]]>How many of you know about specific gravity of cement?
We hope almost all of us would remember the value as 3.15 (actually 3.12-3.19). But most of us do not know why we are calculating this value?
In this post, we will explain you about,
Definition – Specific Gravity is just a comparison between the weight of a volume of a particular material to the weight of the same volume of water at a specified temperature.
In Simple – It is a value to calculate whether the material is able to sink or float on water. Every material has some specific gravity. The value is normally in digits like 0.1 – 100. If the value is less than 1, then the material will float on water. If the value is greater than 1, then the material will sink.
3.15g/cc means the cement is 3.15 times heavier than the water of the same volume.
Normally aggregates are derived from stockpiles, which may be exposed to various conditions.
If the cement has exposed to extreme moisture content then, the specific gravity of cement will differ because of the moisture content present in the pores.
Every material has solid particles and pores which may contain water in it.
Normally our nominal mix design is based on the value of specific gravity of cement as 3.15. The value will change over time if the cement is exposed to various weather conditions. So it is essential to determine the specific gravity of cement before using it.
This is why we are insisted on avoiding old stock cement, which may be affected by the external moisture content.
As already said, the cement may contain lots of moisture content if it is exposed to various conditions and humidity.
We all know that water cement ratio is an important factor. It is directly proportional to workability and the strength of a bonding. If the cement has already more moisture in it then, the value of water-cement ratio will actually affect the workability and strength rather than increasing it.
If the specific gravity of cement is greater than 3.19 then, the cement is either not minced finely as per the industry standard or it has more moisture content which will affect the mix and bonding. This is why you find lots of chunks while mixing old stock cement for concrete.
To find specific gravity of cement value.
The specific gravity of kerosene is 0.79 g/cc
The error value will be acceptable ±0.01.
The practical will be done within 30° C temperature.
Here is the video tutorial that we found on YouTube which illustrates the test
We hope that now you have the fair amount of knowledge on the Specific gravity of cement and importance of this test. If you found this article helpful support us by sharing.
Happy Learning
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]]>The post Why don’t We Exclude Steel Volume in Concrete Calculation? – Quick Tips appeared first on Civilology.
]]>Welcome to our Quick Tip series post,
There are some unanswered questions which may be answered within a minute or within 2-3 sentences. Nobody specifically wants us to know or no one asks us in the interview.
But it is our responsibility as a civil engineer to know every in & out of construction.
Let’s get started.
Whenever we calculate the concrete volume to cast structural members like a beam, footing or slab, we don’t actually exclude the steel reinforcement quantity.
Reason:
Steel quantity varies anywhere from 1% – 3% of the structural member’s volume which is comparatively low. So we will neglect that.
In simple,
Take the below example,
We will calculate the required concrete volume for the above beam as,
V = L x B x D = 3 x 0.2 x 0.5 = 0.3 m^{3}
According to the thumb rule, the concrete wastage is 3%, the reinforcement for the above example may be 3% = 0.009 m^{3 }
That steel reinforcement volume will be compromised with the wastage of concrete. So that we don’t actually exclude the steel reinforcement in concrete calculation
We hope you understand the concept.
Happy Learning
The post Why don’t We Exclude Steel Volume in Concrete Calculation? – Quick Tips appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post What is Water Cement Ratio? – Guide & Calculation appeared first on Civilology.
]]>Have you been told “Add some water, the concrete looks very hard”?
Is this right? Adding more water (Water Cement Ratio) at the site level to increase the concrete workability ???
Absolutely Not…
Water Cement Ratio means the ratio between the weight of water to the weight of cement used in concrete mix.
Normally water cement ratio falls under 0.4 to 0.6 as per IS Code 10262 (2009) for nominal mix (M10, M15 …. M25)
We all know that water cement ratio will directly affect the strength of concrete. Either it increases the strength if used in correct proportion or decrease it.
But have you ever think about it why we are using water if it has so much difficulty?
Concrete is a macro content.
It contains micro ingredients such as cement, sand, fine aggregate & Coarse aggregate. In order to acquire high strength concrete which withstands up to our desired compressive strength, We need correct proportion of admixture to combine these materials.
Here comes the Water which will initiate this chemical process by adding 23%-25% of the cement volume. This initiates the chemical process and makes 15% of water cement paste also known as a gel to fill the voids in the concrete.
As stated above we need 23% of water to initiate the chemical process on cement.
Adding more water than this allowable Water cement limit will actually affect the strength.
If we keep on adding water to increase the workability then the concrete has lots of fluid materials where the aggregates will settle down. Once the water evaporated it leaves lots of voids in concrete which affects the concrete strength.
But if we follow the guidelines in order to maintain the strength of the concrete then it will affect the concrete workability and make us hard to handle and place them.
Wait a minute.
Do you know what is Workability Of Concrete?
Workability means the ability of concrete to handle, transport and placing without any segregation. The concrete said to be workable if it can be easily handled, placed and transported without any segregation while placing it in site.
That’s why we are using plasticisers & superplasticizers which will increase the workability without affecting the W/C Ratio.
We don’t actually calculate the Water Cement Ratio.
It is selected from various workability test based on the structural members, concrete strength, transportation, selection of aggregation etc.
At Site Level, we can make use of the below calculation for the nominal mix.
It is a guide so make your own judgment.
Water Cement Ratio IS 10262 (2009) Code Chart
As you can see from the Chart, the W/C Ratio varies from 0.4 to 0.7 depending on exposure conditions.
If we need to calculate Water quantity for concrete, first find the cement content for the volume.
If we Assume the required cement volume as 50kg,
Required amount of water = W/C Ratio X Cement Volume
Therefore, Required amount of water = 0.5 X 50 kg = 25 litres / 50 kg cement bag.
For Design mix, the W/C Ratio will depend upon the workability, strength requirements.
In IS 10262-2009 ANNEX A. they have explained the process for design mix.
Hope that helps you.
We hope now you have a fair amount of knowledge on Water Cement ratio.
It is time to test this vital task. How to test water cement ratio?
We actually use Concrete Slump Test at the site level to check this workability & Consistency which we will discuss in the upcoming post.
Leave a comment if we missed anything…
Happy Learning
The post What is Water Cement Ratio? – Guide & Calculation appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post How To Calculate Number Of Bricks, Cement And Sand For Brickwork? – With Calculator appeared first on Civilology.
]]>Most of the structural buildings comprise 75% of brickwork (at least in Asian countries).
So it is essential to learn the brickwork calculation,
Before beginning the calculation, be familiar with the types of brick bonds that we covered in the previous post.
In this post, we are going to explain,
Let’s learn the basics,
Any brick walls consist of bricks and cement mortar.
So, first of all, we are going to find the volume of bricks with mortar thickness and then volume of bricks alone.
Volume of 1 brick with mortar = 200 X 100 X 100 ( 10 mm mortar thickness on all sides)
= 0.2 X 0.1 X 0.1
Volume of brick with mortar = 0.002 Cum (m^{3})
Therefore, Number of bricks required for 1 cubic metre = 1/0.002 = 500 No.s
Volume of 1 brick without mortar = 190 X 90 X 90
= 0.19 X 0.09 X 0.09
Volume of 1 brick without mortar = 0.001539 Cum (m^{3})
Volume of 500 bricks without mortar = 500 X 0.001539 Cum
Volume of bricks without mortar for 1 cum = 0.7695 Cum (m^{3})
Therefore,
Required amount of cement mortar = 1 Cum – Volume of bricks without mortar
= 1 – 0.7695
Required amount of cement mortar = 0.2305 Cum (m^{3}) (Wet Condition)
Dry volume of a mortar = 0.2305 cum X 1.33 = 0.306565 cum
We know the mortar ratio is 1:6 (1 part Cement & 6 Part Sand = 7 Part)
Required amount Cement quantity in brickwork = 0.306565 X 1/7 X 1440 kg
Required amount Cement quantity = 63 Kg = 1.26 bags (50 Kg bag)
Required amount of Sand = 0.306565 X 6/7 = 0.26277 Cubic metre (m^{3})
Therefore, For 1 cum of brickwork, we need
Feel free to use the below calculator.
Support us by sharing this article.
Happy Learning
The post How To Calculate Number Of Bricks, Cement And Sand For Brickwork? – With Calculator appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post Grades of Concrete with Proportion (Mix Ratio) appeared first on Civilology.
]]>We use different grades of concrete for different parts of the building.
We could say the grade of concrete is the only thing we do care lot while concreting.
In this post, we are going to explain that in detail.
Actually, what do we mean by grade of concrete.?
Concrete grades are denoted by M10, M20, M30 according to their compressive strength.
The “M” denotes Mix design of concrete followed by the compressive strength number in N/mm2
“Mix” is the respective ingredient proportions which are Cement: Sand: Aggregate Or Cement: Fine Aggregate: Coarse Aggregate.
we already discussed the mix design here.
If we mention M10 concrete, it means that the concrete has 10 N/mm2 characteristic compressive strength at 28 days.
Note
The Minimum grade of concrete for Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) is M15
The Minimum grade of concrete for Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is M20
As per IS 456:2000, the grades less than M20 should not be used in RCC works
Group | Concrete Grade | Mix Ratio | Characteristic Compressive Strength (N/mm2) |
Ordinary Concrete | M5 | 1 : 5 : 10 | 5 N/mm^{2} |
M7.5 | 1 : 4 : 8 | 7.5 N/mm^{2} | |
M10 | 1 : 3 : 6 | 10 N/mm^{2} | |
M15 | 1 : 2 : 4 | 15 N/mm^{2} | |
M20 | 1 : 1.5 : 3 | 20 N/mm^{2} | |
Standard Concrete | M25 | 1 : 1 : 2 | 25 N/mm^{2} |
M30 | Design Mix | 30 N/mm^{2} | |
M35 | Design Mix | 35 N/mm^{2} | |
M40 | Design Mix | 40 N/mm^{2} | |
M45 | Design Mix | 45 N/mm^{2} | |
M50 | Design Mix | 50 N/mm^{2} | |
High Strength Concrete | M55 | Design Mix | 55 N/mm^{2} |
M60 | Design Mix | 60 N/mm^{2} | |
M65 | Design Mix | 65 N/mm^{2} | |
M70 | Design Mix | 70 N/mm^{2} |
Hope you learned something useful. Support us by Sharing.
Happy Learning
The post Grades of Concrete with Proportion (Mix Ratio) appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post How to Calculate Cement, Sand Quantity for Plastering? appeared first on Civilology.
]]>Please note, before using the calculator embedded in this post understand the plastering cement mortar calculation concept.
Note: For a better view, please read this post in landscape view if you are on the mobile device.
Before beginning to work on the plastering calculation, note down these general things
For a better understanding, we are going to do this calculation for 100 Sq.m area.
To calculate the cement and sand for 100 m^{2} plastering area in 1:6 ratio and 12 mm thickness.
Cement Mortar Required:
Plastering thickness 12 mm = 12/1000 = 0.012m
Volume of cement mortar required = ( Plastering Area x thickness )
= 100 m^{2 }x 0.012m = 1.2 m^{3}
(This is wet volume that means we need this much volume of cement mortar after mixing water, So for dry volume, we have to add 30-35% as bulkage of sand, we are using 35% and wastage as 20%)
Consider 35% Sand Bulkage = 1.2 m^{3 }x (1+0.2+0.35) (Many of us would use 1.54 as constant)
= 1.86 m^{3}
Cement : Sand (Ratio) = 1 : 6 ( Total = 1+6 = 7 Parts )
Cement required (1 Part) = 1.86 x 1/7
= 0.265 m^{3 }/0.0347
= 7.66 bags (Approx – 8 Bags)
Sand required (5 Part) = 1.86 x 6/7
= 1.59 m^{3}
We normally use Sq.m while calculating plastering cement mortar. If you want to calculate it in Sq.ft
Just convert that sq.ft into Sqm using Google Instant Area Conversion Tool and then use this formula.
The below calculator is for quick use. Please don’t use this tool until you are familiar with the above calculation.
If you found this tool useful, Just share with your friends on Facebook Wall.
Happy Learning
The post How to Calculate Cement, Sand Quantity for Plastering? appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes – Lab Test & Procedure appeared first on Civilology.
]]>Overall Strength of a structure such as flexural resistance and abrasion directly depends upon the compressive strength of concrete.
According to Wikipedia, Compressive Strength of concrete is defined as the Characteristic strength of 150mm size concrete cubes tested at 28 days.
Concrete is a macro content with Sand, Cement, & Coarse aggregate as its micro-ingredient (Mix Ratio) and gains its 100% strength over time at the hardened state.
Take a look at the below table.
Days after Casting | Strength Gain |
Day 1 | 16% |
Day 3 | 40% |
Day 7 | 65% |
Day 14 | 90% |
Day 28 | 99% |
As you can see the concrete gains its strength rapidly til 7^{th} & 14^{th} Days. Then gradually increases from there. So we can’t predict the strength until the concrete comes to that stable state.
Once it attains certain strength at 7 days, then we know (according to the table) only 9% of strength going to increase. So at sites, we do normally test concrete at this interval. If the concrete fails at 14 days, then we will reject that batching.
Grade of Concrete | Minimum compressive strength N/mm2 at 7 days | Specified characteristic compressive strength (N/mm2) at 28 days |
M15 | 10 | 15 |
M20 | 13.5 | 20 |
M25 | 17 | 25 |
M30 | 20 | 30 |
M35 | 23.5 | 35 |
M40 | 27 | 40 |
M45 | 30 | 45 |
To find compressive strength value of concrete cubes.
Compressive Strength of concrete = Maximum compressive load / Cross Sectional Area
Cross sectional Area = 150mm X 150mm = 22500 mm2 or 225 cm^{2}
Assume the compression load is 450 KN,
Compressive Strength = (450000 N / 225)/9.81 = 204 kg/cm^{2}
Details | Samples | ||
Specimen 1 | Specimen 2 | Specimen 3 | |
Compressive Load (KN) |
375 KN | 425 KN | 435 KN |
Compressive Strength (Kg/Cm2) |
(375000/225) / 9.81 = 170 kg/cm^{2} |
(425000/225) / 9.81 = 192.5 kg/cm^{2} |
(435000/225) / 9.81 = 197.0 kg/cm^{2} |
Average Compressive Strength | = (170+192.5+197)/3
= 186.5 Kg/cm^{2} |
According to IS 456:2000, the Minimum frequency of Concrete Sampling
Quantity of Concrete in Work (M3) | Number of Samples |
1-5 | 1 |
6-15 | 2 |
16-30 | 3 |
31-50 | 4 |
51 and above | 4 plus one additional sample for each additional 50 m3 |
Hope you enjoyed the content. Support us by sharing.
Happy Learning
The post Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes – Lab Test & Procedure appeared first on Civilology.
]]>The post How to Calculate Cement, Sand and Coarse Aggregate Quantity in Concrete? appeared first on Civilology.
]]>We have already discussed Nominal Mix of Concrete and Mix Proportions.
If you have missed that please go ahead and read that. We will wait for you.
It’s time for some calculations.
In this post, we are going to explain “How to Calculate Concrete Volume and its ingredients?”
If it is a volume, then we know there must be 3 dimensions, Length, Height, Width or Breadth.
We covered some Basic Surface Area and Volume Formulas.
For Slab, If we need to calculate the concrete volume,
Volume = Length X Breadth X Width/Thickness = 5 X 3 X 0.125 = 3.75 m^{3}
For Beam, If we need to calculate the concrete volume,
Volume = Length X Breadth X Width = 5 X 0.6 X 0.3 = 3.75 m^{3}
For Column, If we need to calculate a concrete volume for the below Columns,
Rectangular Column, Volume = Height X Breadth X Width = 5 X 0.6 X 0.3 = 0.9 m^{3}
Circular Column, Volume = πr^{2} h= 3.141256 X (0.15)^{2} X 5 = 0.35 m^{3}
For Cement, Sand and Coarse Aggregate.
This is a Volumetric Calculation.
Assuming we need 2 m^{3} of concrete for M20 Concrete Mix, (Mix Ratio, M20 = 1 : 1.5 : 3)
Total Part of the Concrete = 1+1.5+3 = 5.5 Parts
Therefore, Cement Quantity = (Cement Part / Concrete Parts ) * Concrete Volume
= (1/5.5)* Concrete Volume = (1/5.5)*2 = 0.3636 m^{3}
Density of Cement = 1440 kg/ m^{3} = 0.3636 X 1440 = 523 kg = 10.5 Approx. Bags
Sand Quantity = ( Sand Part / Concrete Parts ) * Concrete Volume = (1.5/5.5) * 2 = 0.5454 m^{3}
Coarse Aggregate = (Coarse Aggregate Part / Concrete Parts ) * Concrete Volume
= (3/5.5) * 2 = 1.09 m^{3}
According to IS 10262 (2009), Assuming Water-Cement Ratio for the Concrete as 0.45
Required Amount of Water = W/C Ratio X Cement Volume
Therefore, Water = 0.45 X 0.3636 m^{3 }= 0.16362 m^{3}
Required Amount of Water = 0.16362 X 1000 = 163.62 litres
Therefore, we need 10.5 bags of cement, 0.5454 m^{3} of sand, 1.09 m^{3} of Coarse aggregates and 163.62 litres of water.
Hope you enjoyed the content.
Happy Learning
The post How to Calculate Cement, Sand and Coarse Aggregate Quantity in Concrete? appeared first on Civilology.
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